Thursday, May 21, 2020

Hungarians Killed at the Hands of the Soviet Union Essays

In 1956, thousands of Hungarians, aggrieved by the lack of freedom in their nation, crowded into the streets in revolt to protest against the injustice done towards them. Nikita Khrushchev responds quickly and violently to this unruly show of disloyalty. He sends in his troops and tanks to put a swift, crushing end to the spontaneous uprising. This led to the death of more than 2,500 Hungarians at the hands of Khrushchev. The West made no attempts of intervention, due to their desire to not spark conflict with the Soviet Union, and risk war in the process. This event does not reflect the containment policy due to the West’s passivity in the matter; on the grounds that it did not represent the spread of communism, as Hungary was already a†¦show more content†¦In one case, when the Polish Communist Party elected a new official, they were faced with threats of the Soviet forces invading Poland. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union was at odds with the West, how did they respond? The West was following their policy of containment: to prevent communism from spreading any further than it already had. Their response to the matter does not reflect the policy of containment. They didn’t do anything to intervene or support Hungary. Although their citizens were disturbed by the brutal force shown by Khrushchev, and protested, they ultimately remained passive in the matter. Their leaders stated that their policy was containment. They rationalized that Hungary had already been in communist hands before Khrushchev sent his forces in. Consequently, they had no business intervening. In addition, if they did interfere, they would be risking war with the Soviet Union. Therefore they decided they would ultimately remain inactive. In conclusion, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 resulted in the death of more than 2,500 Hungarians. Many of the attitudes and occurrences at the time, such as Khrushchev’s brutality and the general unrest under the Soviet Union’s control of countries and their freedom were large factors in the revolt. The West makes no attempts of intervention; Hungary was already under the power ofShow MoreRelatedLife in the Soviet Regime During the Cold War1837 Words   |  7 PagesThe Bonds of the Soviet People Elena Gorokhova explains in her memoir that â€Å"The rules are simple: they lie to us, we know theyre lying, they know we know theyre lying, but they keep lying to us, and we keep pretending to believe them.† The novel, A Mountain of Crumbs, depicts the hopelessness, opression and deception of life behind the Iron Curtain during the 70s and 80s. Many rights of the people within the Soviet Union were violated and unacknowledged. In ages past, there were no human rightsRead More The Bonds of the Soviet People1862 Words   |  8 Pagesbut they keep lying to us, and we keep pretending to believe them.† The novel, A Mountain of Crumbs, depicts the hopelessness, opression and deception of life behind the Iron Curtain during the 70s and 80s. Many rights of the people within the Soviet Union were violated and unacknowledged. In ages past, there were no human rights but the idea evolved after a while. It was at the end of World War II that the United Nations created the Univers al Declaration of Human Rights, with the purpose of savingRead MoreThe Reasons For The Outbreak Of The Second World War1444 Words   |  6 PagesFrance and Britain and the Soviet Union convinced that Hitler had limited aims or could be bought off with territorial and other concessions.† Little did the Europeans knew, Adolf had unlimited aims and did not want to be brought. He sought to have complete and utter power. â€Å"World War I, was the dominant event of the 20th century. It hastened the ascendancy of the United States as the world s leading economic power, led to the breakup of the German, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and Ottoman empiresRead MoreNuclear Weapons And The Atomic Bomb Project1394 Words   |  6 Pagesmajor part in the expansion and exploration of this project. For the leg work of this project Julius Robert Oppenheimer, a Jewish-American physicist was chosen to direct the smartest minds of the nuclear physics field. The plan was to keep the Soviet Union uniformed about their future plans and concepts. This project was undertaken by numerous of the worlds best physicists, the base could be found at Los Alamos New Mexico. From all of these studies, projects and tests the first ever properly controlledRead MoreThe Holocaust Research Paper837 Words   |  3 PagesJewish Fighter Organization (ZOB) and the Jewish Military Union (ZZW) organized to take back control of the Ghetto. T hey would smuggle guns and make bombs to use in their fight. On the first day of Passover April 19, 1943 a Nazi force of several thousand entered the Ghetto. About 1,500 ZOB and ZZW openly fired on the Nazi’s with pistols, a few rifles, one machine gun, and their handmade bombs. They destroyed a number of tanks and killed German troops. Most of the Jews in the Ghetto hid in bunkersRead MoreThe Cold War During World War II1795 Words   |  8 Pagesdifferent things which we call the cold war. After obtaining Fidel Castro s approval, the Soviet Union worked quickly and secretly to build missile installations in Cuba. On October 16, President John Kennedy was shown reconnaissance photographs of Soviet missile installations under construction in Cuba. After seven days of guarded and intense debate in the United States administration, during which Soviet diplomats denied that installations for offensive missiles were being built in Cuba, PresidentRead MoreThe Unquiet Ghost: Effect of Stalinism on Russia1796 Words   |  7 PagesThe Unquiet Ghost During the Communist regime in the former Soviet Union, life was very difficult. The people who lived within the countries controlled by the Soviet government experienced levels of oppression akin to slavery. They could not express themselves through any means and had to conform both body and soul to the views of the Communist Party. People could be arrested, imprisoned, shipped off to exile or executed often without trial. Some twenty million people died while Joseph Stalin ledRead MoreViolence Brought by Violence1464 Words   |  6 Pagesreassured. The Geats waited 14 years before stepping up and offering a hand to king Hrothgar. Beowulf was able to do this, not just because the omens were good but because the Danes were their allies and he wanted to help a suffering kingdom. At nightfall, on the day he landed on the shores, Beowulf witnesses what has been terrorizing the kingdom, a monster called Grendel killed people and took over the mead hall. Beowulf killed the monster by tea ring his arm off of his body. Through the killing ofRead MoreCold War in 1980s3505 Words   |  15 Pages The Cold War in 1980s – The Prone Seigneur Between the Two Superpowers Since Cold War began at the end of World War in the late 1940s, the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, were racing their power to get their dominance over another. Each side feared the other’s superior weapons, such as the United States had nuclear weapon and the USSR had their mighty Red Army. The Cold War spread through decades and seemed to be indefinite. Two superpowers with the race of weapon notRead MoreAnalysis of Adam Hochschilds The Unquiet Ghost2126 Words   |  9 PagesThe Unquiet Ghost During the Communist regime in the former Soviet Union, life was very difficult. The people who lived within the countries controlled by the Soviet government experienced levels of oppression akin to slavery. They could not express themselves through any means and had to conform both body and soul to the views of the Communist Party. People could be arrested, imprisoned, shipped off to exile or executed often without trial. Some twenty million people died while Joseph Stalin led

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of The Book Chief Bromden - 1028 Words

At the beginning of the book Chief Bromden is a large Native American who towers over everybody in the hospital. His large stature makes him hard to miss when someone first sees him but by him acting deaf and dumb, hanging out in the shadows and always being the â€Å"fly on the wall† he becomes invisible to people around him while standing in plain sight, he is also invisible to the staff in the hospital who the Chief wants to be invisible to the most. When McMurphy first meets Chief, he notices the Chief’s large stature and believes that he is a â€Å"leader† in the hospital until another patient explains to Mcmurphy that the Chief is deaf and dumb, Mcmurphy dismisses Chief as a â€Å"leader† and makes himself the leader of the hospital. Mcmurphy even says, â€Å"Is that right? You deef, Chief? Well, what the hell, he can shake hands can’t he? Deef or whatever. By God, Chief, you may be big, but you shake my hand or I’ll consider it an insult. And it’s not a good idea to insult the new bull goose loony of the hospital.† Page# 23. This is significant by showing how broken Chief is and how even though he is a mighty powerful man, he has been broken and has become an invisible person in a large â€Å"machine†. The Chief starts to come out of his fog and becomes surer of himself when Mcmurphy is having some fun when he finds out Chief is eating chewing gum from the bottom of his bed. â€Å"Oh does the Spearmint lost its flavor on the bedpost overnight?† Page #205. At this point Mcmurphy givesShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Chief Bromden s The Of One Flew Over The Cuckoo s Nest 952 Words   |  4 Pagesthe resolution was Chief Bromden had escaped from the mental hospital. It affected the mental hospital because many patients were happy he escaped from Nurse Ratched authority. Character Analysis: Chief Bromden - The narrator/patient of One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. Chief Bromden is the son of the chief of the Columbia Indians and a white woman. Also, He suffers from paranoia and hallucinations, and received several electroshock treatments for ten years. In the novel, Chief Bromden’s physicalRead MoreOne Flew Over The Cuckoos Nest Speech Act Theory Essay1281 Words   |  6 Pageshighlighted with the use of the paranoid schizophrenic who is narrating the story because he tends to have hallucinations and illusions quite frequently. The perspective of the narration of the book shapes how it is perceived by the audience. Exploring different points of view such as Chief Bromden, the narrator of the book, or McMurphy, â€Å"the ostensible hero† (Rutten, 2012), changes how the story is perceived by the audience. Society tends to over exaggerate the word â€Å"insanity†. We correlate insanityRead MoreOne Flew Over The Cuckoo s Nest1226 Words   |  5 PagesCuckoo’s Nest is a novel by Ken Kesey published in 1962 by Viking Press. The book depicts a man named Randle McMurphy’s adventures as he is placed in a mental institution to serve his life sentence for raping a 15-year-old girl. McMurphy meets and befriends other patients who are in much worse condition than he is, and attempts to inspire a rebellion against the tyrannical warden of the facility, Nurse Ratched. The book spends a lot of time shedding light on how mental disorders and illnesses workRead More Narration, Metaphors, Images and Symbols in One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest3029 Words   |  13 Pagesin his decision to write the novel using first person narration. The second part of this paper will be an analysis of some of the metaphors and Kesey uses to describe America in the sixties. Finally I will speak ab out the some of the religious images that Kesey has put in the novel.    For the reader of the Nest, the most familiar character of the story would be Chief Broom Bromden, a half Indian, paranoid schizophrenic, who has been in the institution since World War two, (about 15 years)Read MoreReview Of Ken Kesey s One Flew Over The Cuckoo s Nest 1603 Words   |  7 Pagesusing the actions of the characters, the personalities of the employees, and the mental ward as a whole. Mental institutions such as the one in One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest have various patients with various mental illnesses. According to Chief Bromden, a Chronic is a type of patient in the mental institution who has no chance of leaving or being cured. A patient either arrives as a Chronic or becomes one due to procedures such as lobotomy and electric shock therapy (Kesey, 1962, pg. 15-16).Read MoreThe Characters of One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest in Film and Novel935 Words   |  4 Pagesseen quite clearly when comparing the book versions of Nurse Ratched, Randal McMurphy and the ward patients of the mental institute. The main antagonist of the novel(and film) Nurse Ratched is portrayed as the main villain throughout the entirety of both works. Her over towering presence and micromanaging abilities of the ward and the lives of those associated with it are at odds with her rather more feminine body. Kesey, through the narration provided by Bromden, offers us the audience a mental imageRead MoreOne Flew over the Cuckoos Nest: the Power of Laughter1592 Words   |  7 PagesThroughout the story, it is clear that Nurse Ratched (Bug Nurse) manipulates the patients and faculty to control them so she has all the power. As the book starts, we are immediately brought into this mental ward in the eyes of Chief Bromden. As he walks down the hall, and the aids insult him because he is dumb and deaf. However, little do they know that Chief is the exact opposite. As they continue to speak as if he werent there and hand him the broom, They laugh†¦[it is a] Hum of black machinery, hummingRead MoreOne Flew over the Cuckoos Nest Research Paper1764 Words   |  8 Pagesthe book while volunteering at a veterans hospital. This is where he was first introduced to LSD. The moment he tried it, he became addicted, and began experimenting on himself with the drugs, observing the effects. The novel deals with the tyrannical rule of head Nurse Ratched in a mental hospital somewhere in Oregon. She runs all business and daily life in the asylum to her every whim and rules the ward by fear and manipulation. This has gone on for as long as the narrator, Chief Bromden, canRead MoreComparison of Two Texts, â€Å"One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest† and â€Å"to Kill a Mocking Bird†1914 Words   |  8 Pagessociety and underling compressed issues. McMurphys constant display of rebellion indicates the social connection between modern society and inheritance of the ward. Kesey expresses his ideologies of social society of both locations by the narration of Chief. Good morning, Miss Rat-shed! Hows things on the outside?, You cant run around here-in a towel!, No? He looks down at the part of the towel shes eye to eye with, and its wet and skin tight. Towels against ward policy too? Well, I guess theresRead MoreSalt Sugar Fat dialectical journal Essay4963 Words   |  20 PagesPassages quoted from the text (with page numbers) Responses (interact with the text through analysis, predictions, evaluation, and connections, but don’t just summarize) 1. â€Å"On this count, most of the men in the room could rest easy. They had personal trainers, gym memberships, and enough nutritional awareness to avoid diets that were heavy in the foods they manufactured† (11). This just confirms a horrible truth: the food companies are very much aware of the lack of nutritional value in their

Environmental Conflicts In Literature Free Essays

Conflicts are a very prominent element in literature. If you were to look up the dictionary definition of conflict, you would find that it is a struggle, controversy, or fight. Conflicts can take many forms, and each has its own place in literature. We will write a custom essay sample on Environmental Conflicts In Literature or any similar topic only for you Order Now Environmental conflicts are certainly one of the more recognized and appreciated types of conflicts. They are easy to identify, understand, and analyze. An environment can be described as ones surroundings, so logically, an environmental conflict is a conflict with ones surroundings. Environmental conflicts pit man against a greater power, and it is unsure what will happen next. Throughout [good] literature, a vast array of environmental conflicts can be found. Let us take a look at Leiningen Versus the Ants, by Carl Stephenson. In this story, environmental conflicts are exceedingly prevalent. In fact, the entire story is built upon the act of God that Leiningen faces. A twenty square mile army of ants threatens Leiningens plantation and his life. The ants prove to be a formidable opponent, even for a man of such cunning as Leiningen. They represent the power and unpredictability of naturea perfect example of an environmental conflict. Not all environmental conflicts are huge, apocalyptic, catastrophic events. They can be as simple or commonplace as a tree falling. Such is the case in The Interlopers, by Saki. Saki recognizes the power of nature, and makes use of something so unimportant as a fallen tree to trap Ulrich and Georg beneath it, and dramatically alter the course of the entire story. Not only that, but at the end of the story, Saki uses wolves to change the direction of the story once more, and this time he creates some irony as well. In almost all cases, the environment does triumph over man in some way or another. To Build a Fire, by Jack London is a prime example of this happening to a large extent. A man and his dog are lost in the wilderness at sub-zero temperatures, and he is not only involved in an environmental conflict, but a struggle to live. Eventually the man dies of hypothermia. Again, this is another instance that illustrates the power that nature has over us. Ironically, (as if to drive the point home) the mans dog survives. It is safe to say that environmental conflicts are a truly wonderful and important addition to the literary world. They give the reader a sense of awe toward nature and its power. We cannot predict what nature will do, nor can we deny its supremacy. Because of this, environmental conflicts are often more captivating and suspenseful than other types, and we find a great deal of enjoyment and entertainment from them. How to cite Environmental Conflicts In Literature, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Research Proposal on Wireless Sensor Networks Essay Example

Research Proposal on Wireless Sensor Networks Essay A wireless sensor network is an ad hoc network with a large number of nodes, which are micro-sensors capable to collect and transmit environmental data autonomously. The position of these nodes need not be predetermined. They can be randomly dispersed in a geographical area called â€Å"Wellfield† corresponding to the field of interest of the captured phenomenon. In addition to civilian applications, there are military applications for sensor networks (intrusion detection, fighters localization, vehicles, weapons, etc. On a battlefield, under water, in space, in the ground†¦) Until the 1990s, except for some radio tags to route sensor data to the central controller required a costly and cumbersome cabling. New wireless sensor networks have emerged in the 1990s, particularly in the fields of environment and industry, enabled by recent advances in the field of wireless technology. Today, thanks to recent advances in wireless technology, new products based on sensor networks wireless are used to recover these environmental data. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Wireless Sensor Networks specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Wireless Sensor Networks specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Wireless Sensor Networks specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Data collected by the nodes are routed through a multi-hop routing to a node considered a â€Å"collection point,† known as the well node (or the sink). The latter can be connected to the network user (via Internet, satellite or other system). The user can send queries to other network nodes, specifying the type of data needed and collect environmental data collected through the well node. The conjoint progress of microelectronics, microtechnology, wireless technology and software applications have produced micro-sensors few cubic millimeters in volume at a reasonable cost, capable of operating in networks. It include: a sensor unit responsible for capturing physical quantities (heat, humidity, vibrations, radiation†¦) and transform them into digital quantities, a data processing unit and data storage and a wireless module (wireless ). These micro-sensors are real embedded systems, which can autonomously collect and transmit environmental data to one or more collection points and thus form a network of wireless sensors (WSN). Decreasing size and cost of micro-sensors, expanding the range of available sensor types (thermal, optical, vibration†¦) and support the development of wireless communication, have expanded the scope of sensor networks. They fit other systems such as control and automation of assembly lines. They used to collect and process complex information from the environment (weather, study currents, ocean acidification, dispersion of pollutants, propagules, etc. Some futurists believe that sensor networks could revolutionize even the way to understand and construct complex physical systems, especially in domestic military environmental health fields, security, etc. To prepare an interesting and persuasive research proposal on the topic, it would be a good decision to use free sample research paper on wireless sensor networks. These free example research project are often an optimal way to find a good guide through the complex issue of writing scientific text. At writing service you can order a custom research proposal on Wireless Sensor Network topics. Your research paper proposal will be written from scratch. We hire top-rated PhD and Master’s writers only to provide students with professional research proposal help at affordable rates. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized paper with timely delivery. Just visit our website and fill in the order form with all proposal details: Enjoy our professional research proposal writing service!

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Youth Culture and Globalization

Youth Culture and Globalization Thesis Statement Globalization and the commercialization of the youth culture space pose both a positive and a negative precedence towards the future. Globalization has opened up nations’ boundaries allowing faster flow of information across nations. Fast and reliable flow of information promotes common sharing of cultural and social values among youths across the world. However, there is a worrying trend towards discarding the traditional values e.g. family life that has held society together for a long time.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Youth Culture and Globalization specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Introduction The physical and cultural environment occupied by the youths has over time been curved out as an identity for the youths. The identity describes the ideologies held by the youth; youths exist within a defined time framework, space and place. Within this framework, there are forces that influ ence the social and cultural aspects of the youths life. These forces have been reshaping the youth culture from the early days up to the contemporary youth that we have today. This paper looks at the contest and commercialization of the youth culture and manifestation of youth culture in the current global world. The paper also focuses on the possible derailments of the youth culture and the dangers associated with the derailments. Youth culture is looked at as a scheme of social relations that involves creating linkages and responding to the influences derived from power, habits and fashions (Steinberg Parmar 2). The focus is also on the relations that exist between the youth and the society, as well as the factors that shape youths identity in terms of culture. The youths engage one another within a space, places and in turn influence their culture. Adults have some powers that influence or control the way the youths in particular environments develop socially and culturally. Of ten the influence that the adults impose to the youth inhibits the growth and development of the youth. Globalization denotes the trends that have rapidly made activities in the political, economic and social sphere have a worldwide presence (Osgerby 148). The twentieth century saw a break up of the previously firm boundaries dividing nations, leading to a worldwide sharing of economic and cultural values among the communities of the world. Studies have pointed out the youth period as a life course at which individuals are more at a risk of getting alienated (Epstein 4). Being a period that lies in between childhood and adulthood, individuals within this age bracket fight two confusing life issues. There is a fight between the freedom of being a child in the custody of the parents and the fight to deal with the adults’ responsibility.Advertising Looking for term paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn Mor e How youth culture operates in the contemporary global world Globalization has significantly succeeded in bringing the previously long distance relations close. Current communication platforms such as telephone, internet has made it possible to have long distance relationships and make it feel as a close relationship. The internet is a host of several social networking platforms such as face book, MySpace, meebo, Hi5 and many others. Social networking platforms facilitate the sharing of information in almost an instant manner. These platforms also allow uploading of photos which further brings the relationships more close. The possibilities that the internet has brought about have lifted the social relations and cultural values from the local perspective to an international level (Osgerby 149). Most governments moved towards market deregulations to create free markets, this concept promoted the growth of global enterprises. Global entrepreneurs have been scouting for global business opportunities with the main focus now shifting the youth culture. Research points out the rise in international communication, marketing and the media as the platform on which the recent aspects of youth culture stem on. The three aspects have created a platform on which groups of youths around the world can share common interests and sensibilities (Epstein 13). Academics is another means through which the youth culture has been able to spread out across the world, breaking the international boundaries. Most universities and learning institutions have opened their doors to international students, admitting students from different parts of the world. These learning institutions have become fertile grounds for the development and spread of youth culture. Transnational brands and media provide a universal set of choices from which the youths pick social and cultural values. Growth of the global capital market has also been identified as a force working towards globalizing the modern youth culture. It has enabled a cultural exchange across the world in terms of ideas, styles and the commercial products that the youths use. Many youths across the world are experiencing the impact of youth culture; the level of impact however differs based on factors such as gender, race, ethnicity and the social class. These issues have worked to ensure the youths remain starkly divided in terms of culture and other social values. The level of reach to information regarding youth culture is not uniform across the geographical divides. The wealth level among countries is quiet different as is the institution of the various technological platforms which facilitate the sharing of information. The internet spread and use for example is low in underdeveloped countries and highly spread in developed countries. There is also a felt difference to the reach of information between the youths in towns and those in the rural set-ups.Advertising We will write a custom term pap er sample on Youth Culture and Globalization specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The youth culture has for time been viewed as a deviation from the normal life course especially by the adults. As discussed earlier, every adult and parent feels he or she has the power to control the child’s social behavior. To this course, adults want their young ones to grow up and follow the footsteps that they went through as young people. The contemporary youths have a lot of experience exposed to them through the highly globalised space they live in. a lot of the social and cultural issues that the contemporary youth manifest is extracted from the various global media channels. Some of the most prominent youth groups that have existed in the world over include; the working class, the riot girls and the separatism. Hall and Jefferson (236) point out that the youths belong to a special group that equally requires special attention. There is a generatio n gap that has developed between youth culture and the class concept. Class in societies is created based in wealth, race, ethnicity and castes for countries where the caste system type of life exists. Youths are increasingly playing a felt role in the rapidly growing economies in the world. The youth culture has become a point of focus as a market; this is quickly being adopted as a culture in most countries. For countries where the economy is more of agrarian and industrial, the youths are depended upon as a source of labour. They labour to produce goods and products for sale within the global market. The operation of the youth culture is restrained by economic forces, it flourishes when the economy is performing well. How youth culture responds to the opportunities to manifest the youth culture depends on the youth empowerment which varies from one geographic place to another (Steinberg Parmar 24). The negative aspects of youth culture Youth culture has been associated with a se ries of negative effects which the adults have expressed their discomfort with. The sharing of global cultural and cultural issues has widely been criticized by the previously conservative nations. There is hardly a nation where the youths are clearly holding pure culture, not a mix up of values from various places. Some of the cultural values that the youths have adopted have been criticized from the moral point of view. The hip hop culture for example expressed in the hip hop music is looked at as being demonic by the Christians, yet this culture has spread out so fast embracing many youths across the world.Advertising Looking for term paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Symbols of youth culture such as pop music and the related fashion have become common among the youths which many express fears of it aiming at corrupting the innocent (Hall Jefferson 237). It is clear in this context that the youths are not innocent as they are already embedded into the system. But they have blindly chosen to be exploited by youth cultural aspects such as pop culture. The media as a platform on which cultural sharing takes places has been criticized for not censoring the information made accessible to the youths. Some of the information rated inappropriate to the youths is made accessible to the youths who pick up the information and make it part of them. Shows with scenes of violence, pornography, drug use, robbery are so common in cinemas and other movie shows where the youths are common visitors. They leave the cinema and movie halls with a mentality as those of the characters of the movies. This influences the youths with criminal minds, prostitution and drug use. Most parents argue that a lot of efforts need to be instituted in the process of molding the youths by directing them to acquire the right culture. This is in light of the dynamics of the globalization and the challenges that are presented to the current youth generation. Many youths today circulate around proms for fashion and tuxedos, whose financial implications are so high. The emphasis on the physical outlook in proms is not just about the clothes, the concept also touches on both the physical outlook in terms of weight and height of the individual (Lerner Lerner 542) point out that most youths resort to dieting and purging to loose some weight before the prom time, this behavior changes are often accompanied by complicated outcomes to those involved. Other than the fashion aspect that is embedded in prom, sexuality is also an issue. Sexual intercourse among the youths poses life threatening effects such as teenage pregnancy and transmission of viral diseases. Alcohol con sumption and drug use is another worrying part of prom celebration. This can be pose dangers to the youths especially are they have to drive under intoxication from the prom (Lerner Lerner 543). Prostitution is a growing menace world over; in fact, this has become a profitable industry. The industry attracts young girls who are exploited for the sake of material gain in exchange for sex. Most modern family structures are not anchored on strict values; some parents are abusive to their children as a result of drug abuse. Some children from such families escape the harassment and end up on the streets as prostitutes. Others run away from school after failing to cope with school life and standards and end up in prostitution as away of life. These are the negative effects that the global world brings to the contemporary youth. Unauthorized copying of sound and music is growing at an alarming rate especially among the youths. The behavior is motivated by the availability of digitized au dio content, technology that supports sharing of audio files hard economic times and lack morals and ethics. The broadband technology has widely been used as a means of sharing music files; copyrighted audio content is also copied using writable CDs, DVDs, flash discs and other compressed information storage devices. Youths are widely involved in cross-border copying of audio content via internet by downloading. Youths access adult content and share the same world over with other youths. There has been an alarming cry over the type of content that the youths share over the internet, pornographic content is widely downloaded even by youths under the recommending age for the content. The future of youth culture and globalization Youths in the developing nations are at risk of loosing their original identity and adapting a completely new form of life. These are youths who feel what they have inherited from their parents in terms of culture is inferior; they therefore hope out to check for the world class culture. They imitate what they view in the media and take it up against their parents wish. Youths from Africa and Asia are especially keen to copying the culture of the American youths whom they feel have a better way of life than theirs (Nayak 76). This can be observed in the dress code, the type of music they listen to, leisure activities, dating styles and the games they prefer to engage in. (Epstein 14) points out that most rural home are left without youths as they stream to cities in search of employment opportunities. This habit has led to highly populated cities filled mainly by the youths. There is also a clear shift in the gender roles especially in the African and Muslim communities. Duties previously preserved for men only are today filled by ladies as well. Most Muslims and Indians for example, preserved domestic duties for women; men were to be single bread winner. These attitudes are being eroded among the contemporary youths especially as the wo rld economy becomes tougher. The economic situation calls for men and women to complement each others’ effort. As a result, young ladies are now striving for competitive positions; there are calls for affirmative action in many nations that have not yet created a conducive environment for women to compete favorably with men. Women are struggling for representation in political positions, in order to be able to articulate their issues appropriately. Many countries especially in Africa and the Arab countries had little or sometimes no women representation in parliaments (Scrase Holdden 43). Today with the widespread crusade on gender issues and the need to have women representatives in various offices, changes are being instituted to allow women hold office positions. Many have pointed out the many positive effects associated with globalization especially in promoting economic growth among nations. It is also clear that globalization has contributed to the erosion of religious identities, traditional values and social identity among communities in the world. The opening up of the nation’s boundaries has indicated security threats especially in the wake of terrorism and piracy along some coastal lines. The September 11 incidence is still clear in the minds of the people. The increased global economic integration is being enhanced day after day. There is a global need to unite and fight terrorism which has become a global problem now. The unity forged among nations to fight terrorism is an avenue for further global engagement among nations. The youths have become targets of the terrorism groups; they are often recruited as members of the groups and involve themselves in execution of terrorism activities (Nayak 28). Conclusion Globalization has been viewed by many as a blessing in disguise. This is because both the positive and negative benefits associated with it. Many studies of the globalizations phenomenon have focused more on the economic and so cial aspects globalization and dissociated it from the cultural impact. Youth culture especially comes at the centre of globalization effects on culture. As pointed out, globalization did open up boundaries of nations allowing sharing of information on various issues. This has impacted much on the way of life of the youths across the world. Most of the media and information platforms for sharing information across the world favor the youths. The internet for example as a tool of communication is big fascination to the youths. Social networking platforms such as face book are fashionable communication channels for the contemporary youths. As a result of the fast and reliable communication channels acts as a fan to the spread of youth culture. Parents are at pains seeing the type of culture their young ones are growing up with. The adults have little control over their youths considering the free flow of information that the youths are exposed to in the media. They tend to copy most o f their ways of life from the media and spread out to other youths. The trend has been set; the momentum towards a highly integrated world is receiving support from all over. The future of the youth culture is set to be more common across the world as they continue to share common information and copy one another in terms of culture. Effort is needed to mitigate the negative aspects of globalization on the youth culture such as violence, crime and drug abuse (Scrase Holdden 17). Further research is recommended in the area of the effect of globalization on the youth culture so as to come up with proper mitigation mechanisms of the negative effects as well as how to promote the positive aspects of globalization on youth culture. Steinberg, Shirley, Parmar, Priya. Contemporary Youth Culture: An International Encyclopedia, Volume 2. New York: Greenwood press, 2006. Osgerby, Bill. Youth Media. New York: Routledge, 2004. Epstein, Jonathon. Youth Culture: Identity in a Postmodern World. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Inc., 1998. Hall, Stuart, Jefferson Tony. Resistance through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain. New York: Routledge, 2004. Lerner, Jacqueline, Lerner Richard. Adolescence in America: A-M. California: ABC-CLIO Inc., 2006. Nayak, Anoop. Race, Place and Globalization: Youth Cultures in A Changing World. New York: Berg, 2003. Scrase, Timothy, Holdden Miles. Globalization, Culture and Inequality in Asia. Hawaii: Trans Pacific, 2003

Sunday, March 1, 2020

How to Extract Caffeine From Tea

How to Extract Caffeine From Tea Plants and other natural materials are sources of many chemicals. Sometimes you want to isolate a single compound from the thousands that may be present. Here is an example of how to use solvent extraction to isolate and purify caffeine from tea. The same principle may be used to extract other chemicals from natural sources. Caffeine From Tea: Materials List 2 tea bagsDichloromethane0.2 M NaOH (sodium hydroxide)Celite (diatomaceous earth - silicon dioxide)HexaneDiethyl ether2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol) Procedure Extraction of Caffeine: Open the tea bags and weigh the contents. This will help you determine how well your procedure worked.Place the tea leaves in a 125-ml Erlenmeyer flask.Add 20 ml dichloromethane and 10 ml 0.2 M NaOH.Extraction: Seal the flask and gently swirl it for 5-10 minutes to allow the solvent mixture to penetrate the leaves. Caffeine dissolves in the solvent, while most of the other compounds in the leaves do not. Also, caffeine is more soluble in dichloromethane than it is in water.Filtration: Use a Buchner funnel, filter paper, and Celite to use vacuum filtration to separate the tea leaves from the solution. To do this, dampen the filter paper with dichloromethane, add a Celite pad (about 3 grams Celite). Turn on the vacuum and slowly pour the solution over the Celite. Rinse the Celite with 15 ml dichloromethane. At this point, you may discard the tea leaves. Retain the liquid you have collected it contains the caffeine.In a fume hood, gently heat a 100-ml beaker containing the washings to evaporate the solvent. Purification of Caffeine: The solid that remains after the solvent has evaporated contains caffeine and several other compounds. You need to separate the caffeine from these compounds. One method is to use the different solubility of caffeine versus other compounds to purify it. Allow the beaker to cool. Wash the crude caffeine with 1 ml portions of a 1:1 mixture of hexane and diethyl ether.Carefully use a pipette to remove the liquid. Retain the solid caffeine.Dissolve the impure caffeine in 2 ml dichloromethane. Filter the liquid through a thin layer of cotton into a small test tube. Rinse the beaker twice with 0.5 ml portions of dichloromethane and filter the liquid through the cotton to minimize the loss of a fume hood, heat the test tube in a warm water bath (50-60 Â °C) to evaporate the solvent.Leave the test tube in the warm water bath. Add 2-propanol a drop at a time until the solid dissolves. Use the minimum amount required. This should be no more than 2 milliliters.Now you can remove the test tube from the water bath and allow it to cool to room temperature.Add 1 ml of hexane to the test tube. This will cause the caffeine to crystallize out of solution.Carefully remove the liquid using a pipette, leaving the purified caffeine.Wash the caffeine with 1 ml of a 1:1 mix of hexane and diethyl ether. Use a pipette to remove the liquid. Allow the solid to dry before weighing it to determine your yield. With any purification, its a good idea to check the melting point of the sample. This will give you an idea of how pure it is. The melting point of caffeine is 234 Â °C. Additional Methods Another way to extract caffeine from tea is to brew tea in hot water, allow it to cool to room temperature or below, and add dichloromethane to the tea. The caffeine preferentially dissolves in dichloromethane, so if you swirl the solution and allow the solvent layers to separate. you will get caffeine in the heavier dichloromethane layer. The top layer is decaffeinated tea. If you remove the dichloromethane layer and evaporate the solvent, you will get slightly impure greenish-yellow crystalline caffeine. Safety Information There are hazards associated with these and any chemicals used in a lab procedure. Be sure to read the MSDS for each chemical and wear safety goggles, a lab coat, gloves, and other appropriate lab attire. In general, be aware the solvents are flammable and should be kept away from open flames. A fume hood is used because the chemicals may be irritating or toxic. Avoid contact with sodium hydroxide solution, as it is caustic and can cause a chemical burn on contact. Although you encounter caffeine in coffee, tea, and other foods, it is toxic in relatively low doses. Dont taste your product!

Friday, February 14, 2020

Enhancing Teamwork At Communico Company Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Enhancing Teamwork At Communico Company - Essay Example The intention of this study is organizational leadership assessment, a strategic tool for enhancing the effectiveness of teams in organization. Smith, Montagno and Kuzmenko argue that team effectiveness is a critical aspect for ensuring the profitability of an organization. As a graduate trainee employed by ‘CommuniCo’ a large UK-based mobile phone manufacturing company, I have come up with this advice paper to recommend the planning of an initiative to improve teamwork amongst managers and shop-floor workers. Cohen and Bailey describe that there are different definitions of a team within the context of an organization. Cohen and Bailey explain that a team is a collection of interdependent individuals in their tasks, share duties for outcomes, they see themselves and are viewed by others as an integral social unit embedded in another larger social system and manage their interaction within the organizational boundaries. According to Cohen and Bailey although different au thors use the word team and group interchangeably; she asserts that groups vary in their degree of ‘groupness’ with some groups being more integrated and interdependent than others. Katzenbach and Smith observes that they used the term; team to refer to groups that develop high degree of ‘’groupness’’. On the other hand, given that most previous authors had focused their studies on ineffective teams, Larson and LaFasto directed their energies on exploring different aspects of effective leadership as noted by Irving and Longbotham. (2007, p. 104). Consequently, given the diverse approach that the two different case studies used in evaluating team leadership models, I have chosen to base my analysis on the models they developed on effective team leadership. Katzenbach and Smith’s work is particularly important in that the two went further and defined a team as individuals who show high level of integration. The two case studies in-turn ca me up with high standards for a team in their generic model of effective team working. I therefore wish to benchmark teamwork initiative at CommuniCo with a hybrid of the two models to guarantee the success of our organization. According to Cohen and Bailey (1997, p.241) there are four different types of teams in an organization which include; work teams, management teams, parallel teams and project teams. Cohen and Bailey (1997, p. 242) explains that effectiveness in an organization include diverse outcomes that are important in an organization. The levels of evaluating effectiveness can be analyzed from an individual, business unit, group or organizational level. The effectiveness is categorized into three dimensions depending on its impact on the team. These include performance effectiveness which is assessed in terms of quality and quantity of the output, behavioral outcomes and members’ attitudes. The argument on this paper will base on the writing of various authors who have analyzed the works of Larson and LaFasto and that of Katzenbach and Smith. Planning a Teamwork Initiative for the Company Team buildings is a critical aspect in any organization be it a school, nonprofit organization, a firm or a religious group and are implemented with an intention of improving the performance of a team (Lencioni, 2002, p.10-12 and Naquin and Tynan, 2003, p. 332). Team building may involve use of various practices that are used to bring together a specific group within an organization or initiatives aimed at bringing the all the members of an organization with an effort to improve the performance. CommuniCo Company has proposed to implement an initiative to improve teamwork across the company. Burgoynem (2001, p.35) notes that team building is important in an